Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with its neighbor Chile to the west, the country is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south.With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776.
As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.
One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci.
The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 15, respectively.
The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country.The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule.In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country.The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.and perhaps resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name 'Argentine Republic'.The name "Argentina" is derived from Latin argentum ("silver", plata in Spanish), a noun associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.